Fuel Efficient Wood Stoves CDM Projects
The best energy sources are renewable – solar, wind and biogas, in that order. But they have their limitations and cannot be adopted in all situations. Wood is an energy source with problems and limitations. Some of these can be minimized, others cannot. The literature says:
"Wood can be harvested poorly, burnt dirty and its heat wasted. Or, wood can be harvested sustainably, burnt cleanly and efficiently, and its energy used to reduce greenhouse gas emissions that cause global warming."
Woodstoves CDM Projects are a feasible alternative to 3-stone stoves and open chullas for cooking and heating water. Besides consuming a lot of increasingly difficult to find firewood, the already cramped houses of poor people fill up with smoke, causing physical discomfort, burning eyes and respiratory illness. The storing of weekly stocks of firewood within the house is also an invitation to vermin, snakes and scorpions. Kerosene stoves burn fossil fuel and cause emissions. Moreover, cooking with kerosene is a costly proposition when bought in the black, since the public distribution system supplies barely enough for lighting lamps and firing the hearth.
This technology is ideally suited for very poor families who own no cattle or have space to build biogas units. It is also ideal for the urban poor in small Moffusil towns.
Non Renewable Biomass
An important prerequisite for Woodstoves CDM Projects is the need to demonstrate that the use of non-renewable biomass — i.e. the trees and shrubs they chop will not grow back or regenerate. When they are using crop residues or merely gathering twigs or lopping a few branches, for example, this does not qualify as non-renewable.
Woodstoves CDM Projects make a limited, but measurable, contribution to sustainable development of the poor and benefit their communities. Replacing traditional wood stoves with fuel efficient ones reduces indoor air pollution and improves the health of women and children. It also reduces pressure on natural forests and common property resources.
Project requirements are to arrange short term financing, negotiate and purchase inventory, transfer Items to the villages and record installations. But since large volumes of expensive inventory is involved, stock movement and strict controls are vital.
Monitoring of Emission Reductions generated is calculated by counting the number of stoves not operational, and deducting from the total installed.
Typically, a fuel efficient woodstove generates 1.15 to 2 tCO2-e per lamp per annum. At € 20 per CER and an exchange rate of ₹ 70 this translates to a carbon revenue of ₹ 1,610 to ₹ 2,800 per woodstove each year of the 10 year long crediting period.
A typical Woodstoves CDM Project can cover a maximum of 22,000 to 36,000 families, based on the chosen methodology and a few other factors. The plus point is that they generate 1.1 to 2 CERs per stove per annum, depending on the baseline scenario. Revenue earned from the sale of the first year's CER generation is sufficient to cover the initial cost of the stove, and project preparation costs.
Instead of entering into a long term Emission Reduction Purchase Agreement (ERPA) with a carbon investor and selling the Emission Reductions in advance, Woodstoves CDM Projects can be financed through, for example, an already running micro-credit programme in the project area.
Carbon revenues earned in subsequent years can be used for stove replacement, monitoring, verification and issuance.